In Response to the Study Guide:
Hsieh, Rai, Keil Article: How did computer use differ between disadvantaged (low-income) and advantaged (high-income) groups in this study?
Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to the differences in behavior based upon income and education. The disadvantaged use the Internet for hedonic (pleasure) purposes, for instance entertainment; whereas the advantaged used the Internet in a utilitarian manner; in an instrumental way. Through the implementation of TV Internet for the city of LaGrange, residents were given free Internet access with restrictions, including: no printing, limitations in sharing files, inability of browsing websites with a plugin requirement, and non-concurrent use of the Internet and TV. While Internet TV fits the needs of the disadvantaged, it does not fit the needs of the advantaged. When technology is made available to the disadvantaged, they still need to cross their personal psychological and mental barriers in use, as social norms don't guarantee a continued use of the technology. Rather, "self efficacy and availability determine and intention for continued use for the disadvantaged." Whereas the disadvantaged do not readily own computers, the Internet TV gives them some access without a monthly charge commitment. Therefore, it is conclusive that the advantaged and disadvantaged behave differently toward technology. "Access is not enough; material, cognitive and social reasons are required to address the digital divide."